Saturday 15 August 2020
Station history

The meteorological data are from the measurements of the Meteorological Institute with the centre of Budapest which had however different names in the course of time. The measurements were carried out at the following places in chronological order:

kep1

1901-1910

Between 1 January 1901-28 February 1910 near the abutment of the Chain Bridge in Buda, in Fő street 6. (47°30’3”N, 19°2’15”E). On the corner of the building a memorial tablet shows the place of the institute headed by Miklós Konkoly Thege that time. The measurement of temperature was carried out in the northern side of the building in the height of the first floor with the help of a so-called iron thermometer screen. A similar or the same thermometer screen can be seen in the collection of the Museum of the Hungarian Meteorological Service. The measuring of precipitation was carried out a bit farther, near the abutment of the Chain Bridge where the open area necessary for the measurements was available.

kep2
kep3

kep4
1910 – 1985

On 1 March 1910 the measurements in the instrument garden near the Headquarters of the Meteorological Institute in the Kitaibel Pál street began (Kiatibel P. u. 3., 47°30’46”N, 19°01’34”E). Here the thermometers were placed already in the so-called English-type Stevenson screen with a double wooden frame. The thermometers (station, maximum and minimum thermometers) were above the soil surface by about 2 m according to the international recommendations. The double frame structure ensured that the thermometers were not affected by sunshine or rain but the screen was aired. The rain gauge was placed in the instrument garden as well.

The measurements of sunshine duration began two years later, in 1912 in the tower of the Institute, where the operation without horizon limitation could be ensured.

In the 1930s block houses having three floors were built on the two sides of the instrument garden which partly shielded the instruments in case of low position of the sun. However no change could be observed in the measurement series. During the siege of Budapest in 1945 the measurements were suspended a few weeks long but the data were supplemented by the measurements of the surrounding stations. The measurements were ceased in the instrument garden on 31 March 1985 and the area was built in.

kep5

kep6
1985 – 2000

The measurements were carried on terrace of the Headquarters in the Kitaibel Pál street on the 25,7 m high 5th floor (47°30’40”N, 19°01’41”E). The thermometers were placed in the same thermometer screen as in the instrument garden but the new placement meant better airing. Since 1 January 1998 the traditional (mercury, alcohol) thermometers were replaced by electrical thermometers.

From 1 April 1985 till January 1994 two rain gauges were operated on the terrace. One in the north-western, the other in the south-eastern corner of the terrace in order to eliminate the effect of the 6th and 7th floors in the middle of the terrace which may change the air current in case of different wind directions. The mean value of the two measurements was recorded.

Due to problems connected to the placement, from 4 January 1994 only one rain gauge was operated. (In the course of installing automatic measuring instruments a rain gauge sensor has been installed as well but the data measured by the traditional rain gauge are recorded in the data series further on.) Due to the renovation of the tower the measurement of precipitation was carried out in the court of the Headquarters, in a rather closed surroundings, between 19 June 1999 and 8 May 2000. Then the rain gauge was placed again in the tower. In this period the measurement of sunshine duration was ceased as well, but the data were supplemented with the help of the measurements in Pestlőrinc.